Biological Actions

Biological actions in the management of CVI

  • The mechanism of action in the management of CVI includes a combination of vasoprotective (preserving structural integrity of the blood vessels), venotonic , antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects.4,6-10 These compounds are also reported to inhibit enzymes such as collagenase, hyaluronidase, beta-glucoranidase, and elastase that catalyze the break down of the structural integrity of the veins. A balance between build up and breakdown of the structure of the veins is critical to healthy circulation. The factors detailed earlier are reported to increase the activities of these enzymes, inducing the breakdown of the proteoglycans that form the matrix of connective tissues and increasing capillary permeability4. Other researchers suggest that horse chestnut seed extract inhibits the accumulation and activation of leucocytes. Leucocyte activation, an immunological mechanism, is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of CVI11 and also contributes to the inflammatory process. Thus horse chestnut seed extract helps maintain the structural integrity as well as the tone of the blood vessels2.

  • The anti-inflammatory effects of escin are also documented. Animal model studies revealed that escin may stimulate the adrenal cortex by the hypothalamic pituitary axis, leading to the release of glucocorticoids. Experimental evidence also points out the possibility of direct activity of escin in stimulating the adrenal cortex and the mediatory role of escin in the histamine response to inflammation12. The free radical scavenging properties of standardized horse chestnut extract and escin have also been demonstrated and could explain in part, the antiedema effects of escin13. Escin has also been shown to enhance prostaglandin (PGF2α) generation in the veins, as evidenced by studies on the human saphenous vein and in the rabbit portal vein14.


These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.